The Western Hockey League (WHL) is a major junior ice hockey league based in Western Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The WHL is one of three leagues that constitute the Canadian Hockey League (CHL) as the highest level of junior hockey in Canada. Teams play for the Ed Chynoweth Cup, with the winner moving on to play for the Memorial Cup, Canada's national junior championship.
The WHL was founded in 1966 with seven teams in Saskatchewan and Alberta. It is the brainchild of Bill Hunter, who intended to build a western league capable of competing with the top leagues in Ontario and Quebec. Originally considered an "outlaw league" by the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association, the WHL was sanctioned as the top junior league in Western Canada when junior hockey was reorganized in 1970. WHL teams have won the Memorial Cup 18 times since the league became eligible to compete for the trophy.
Today, the WHL comprises 22 teams, divided into two conferences of two divisions. The Eastern Conference comprises 12 teams from Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, while the Western Conference comprises ten teams from British Columbia, Washington State and Oregon.
- See also: Timeline of WHL history
Despite winning the 1966 Memorial Cup, the Edmonton Oil Kings' owner, Bill Hunter, was growing concerned about the state of junior hockey in western Canada. Each of the West's four provinces had its own junior league, and Hunter felt that this put them at a disadvantage when competing nationally against the powerful leagues in Ontario and Quebec. Desiring stronger competition, Hunter's Oil Kings competed in the Alberta Senior Hockey League rather than the Alberta Junior Hockey League.
The Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA) informed the Oil Kings that they were required to play in a junior hockey league for the 1966–67 season or would be held ineligible to compete for the Memorial Cup. This led Hunter to form a new league with five former members of the Saskatchewan Junior Hockey League (SJHL), the Estevan Bruins, Regina Pats, Saskatoon Blades, Moose Jaw Canucks, and Weyburn Red Wings, to leave the SJHL and join the Oil Kings and the Calgary Buffaloes in a new league known as the Canadian Major Junior Hockey League. Despite concerns that this new league would see the demise of the Alberta and Saskatchewan leagues, the governing bodies in both provinces sanctioned the new league. The CAHA did not, however, declaring the CMJHL to be an "outlaw league" and suspending all teams and players from participation in CAHA sanctioned events. The new league accused the CAHA of overstepping its boundaries and with the support of the players and their families, chose to play the season regardless.
The CMJHL renamed itself the Western Canada Hockey League in 1967, adding four new teams to total 11 as the league stretched east into Manitoba. Concerns over the WCHL's relationship with the CAHA led the Pats, Canucks and Red Wings to withdraw before the 1968–69 season, returning to the SJHL. When the CAHA reorganized junior hockey in 1971, it named the WCHL one of three Tier I Major-Junior leagues, along with the Ontario Hockey Association's Tier I division (now the Ontario Hockey League) and the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League.
Early years Edit
The first decade of the WCHL saw constant expansion and franchise movement as the league spread throughout the West. The Flin Flon Bombers became the league's first powerhouse team, led by future NHL stars Bobby Clarke and Reggie Leach. The Brandon Wheat Kings and Swift Current Broncos joined in 1967, the Medicine Hat Tigers in 1970. The WCHL truly became a western league in 1971 when Estevan moved to B.C. to become the New Westminster Bruins, joined by expansion franchises the Victoria Cougars and Vancouver Nats.
In the mid 1970s, the New Westminster Bruins became the WCHL's first true dynasty, capturing four consecutive championships between 1975 and 1978. The Bruins also won back-to-back Memorial Cups in 1977 and 1978.
In 1976, the Oil Kings succumbed to the competing Edmonton Oilers of the World Hockey Association and relocated to Portland to become the Winter Hawks, the WCHL's first American franchise. With the addition of American teams in Seattle and Billings a year later, the WCHL shortened its name to the Western Hockey League.
Brawling '80s Edit
The 1980s were marked by several brawls that involved police intervention, one of the most bizarre trades in hockey history, and the tragic deaths of four players in a bus crash.
Early in the 1980–81 WHL season, Medicine Hat Tigers GM/Coach Pat Ginnell traded blows with a linesman during a bench clearing brawl against the Lethbridge Broncos. Ginnell was found guilty of assault, fined $360, and suspended for 36 games by the WHL. In March 1982 a violent brawl between the Regina Pats and Calgary Wranglers saw the two teams collectively fined $2250 and players suspended for 73 games combined. Pats coach Bill LaForge would end up in a courtroom later that season when he got into an altercation with a fan. LaForge was acquitted when the judge noted that it was hard to convict a man for assault when faced with "an obnoxious person trying to get into the coach's area.". LaForge resigned following the season after serving three separate suspensions.
On January 19, 1983, the Seattle Breakers dealt the rights to Tom Martin to the Victoria Cougars in exchange for the Cougars' team bus. The deal made perfect sense: the Breakers were unable to sign Martin, who wanted to play in his home town of Victoria, and the Cougars were unable to use the bus (which they had purchased from the folded Spokane Flyers) because they were unwilling to pay the taxes and duties required to register the vehicle in Canada.
On December 30, 1986, tragedy struck the Swift Current Broncos when their bus slid off an icy highway and rolled on the way to Regina for a game. Scott Kruger, Trent Kresse, Brent Ruff, and Chris Mantyka were killed. The Broncos retired their numbers, and as of 2009 still wear a commemorative patch in remembrance of the four players who died. The WHL later renamed its award for most valuable player as the Four Broncos Memorial Trophy in their honour.
Modern league Edit
The last 15 years in the WHL have been marked by another period of expansion and the return of the league to Western Canada's major cities. The Kamloops Blazers became the WHL's second dynasty in the early 1990s when they won both the WHL Championship and Memorial Cup three times in four years between 1992 and 1995. The Kelowna Rockets have become the third dynasty, winning three WHL titles in 2003, 2005, and 2009; and winning the Memorial Cup as host city in 2004. The Portland Winterhawks became the first American team to win the Memorial Cup, winning it in 1983 while hosting the tournament. The Hawks won the Memorial Cup again in 1998 in Spokane, Washington.
In 1995, the Calgary Hitmen were born when a group of investors, including Bret "the Hitman" Hart, from whom the team got its name, were granted an expansion franchise. Despite early fears that the WHL could not succeed in an NHL city, the Hitmen have been a major success, averaging as many as 10,000 fans per game in 2004–05. The Hitmen were followed one year later by the Edmonton Ice, who failed after only two seasons because of conflicts with the Edmonton Oilers. The team would become the Kootenay Ice, who have become a major success in Cranbrook, British Columbia despite being one of the smallest markets in the league. In the new millennium, the league has given birth to four new expansion teams—the Vancouver Giants in 2001, the Everett Silvertips in 2003, the Chilliwack Bruins in 2005, and the Edmonton Oil Kings in 2007, as the Oilers have taken an interest in cultivating a junior team in the Alberta capital.
The WHL is stereotypically known for producing large, hard-hitting defencemen and gritty power forwards, although recently a high percentage of quality goaltenders have come out of the Dub as well, as evidenced by the fact that the five of the last six winners of the CHL Goaltender of the Year award have come from the WHL.
Since 2006 Shaw TV has become the television partner with the league in Canada airing a game every Friday Night and other select games through out the season as well as one round of every playoff series. Starting in 2009 FSN Northwest agreed to air some games throughout the northwest United States Of America.
Member teams EditFor the season, the WHL comprises 22 teams divided into two conferences, making it the largest league in the CHL; the Ontario Hockey League has 20 teams and the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League has 18. The WHL has member teams across four Canadian provinces, and two American states. The Eastern Conference comprises teams from Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and eastern British Columbia. The Western Conference is made up of teams based in British Columbia, Washington and Oregon.
The top eight teams in each conference qualify for the playoffs, with the division winners declared the top two seeds in the first round of the post-season. The four remaining teams in each conference are reseeded by regular season points in the second round of the playoffs.
Eastern Conference Edit
|East||Brandon Wheat Kings||Brandon, Manitoba, Canada||Westman Communications Group Place||5,102|
|Moose Jaw Warriors||Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, Canada||Mosaic Place||4,714|
|Prince Albert Raiders||Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, Canada||Art Hauser Centre||3,366|
|Regina Pats||Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada||Brandt Centre||6,200|
|Saskatoon Blades||Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada||SaskTel Centre||15,195|
|Swift Current Broncos||Swift Current, Saskatchewan, Canada||Credit Union iPlex||3,239|
|Central||Calgary Hitmen||Calgary, Alberta, Canada||Scotiabank Saddledome||19,289|
|Edmonton Oil Kings||Edmonton, Alberta, Canada||Rogers Place||18,641|
|Kootenay Ice||Cranbrook, British Columbia, Canada||Western Financial Place||4,654|
|Lethbridge Hurricanes||Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada||ENMAX Centre||5,479|
|Medicine Hat Tigers||Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada||
Medicine Hat Arena (-2015)
Canalta Centre (2015-)
5,500 (expandable to 6,500)
|Red Deer Rebels||Red Deer, Alberta, Canada||ENMAX Centrium||6,000|
Western Conference Edit
|B.C.||Kamloops Blazers||Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada||Sandman Centre||5,464|
|Kelowna Rockets||Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada||Prospera Place||6,286|
|Prince George Cougars||Prince George, British Columbia, Canada||CN Centre||5,971|
|Vancouver Giants||Langley, British Columbia, Canada||Langley Events Centre||5,276|
|Victoria Royals||Victoria, British Columbia, Canada||Save-On-Foods Memorial Centre||7,006|
|U.S.||Everett Silvertips||Everett, Washington, United States||Xfinity Arena at Everett||8,149|
|Portland Winterhawks||Portland, Oregon, United States|| Memorial Coliseum|
|Seattle Thunderbirds||Kent, Washington, United States||ShoWare Center||6,500|
|Spokane Chiefs||Spokane, Washington, United States||Spokane Veterans Memorial Arena||10,759|
|Tri-City Americans||Kennewick, Washington, United States||Toyota Center||6,000|
The WHL has taken a much greater role in its players educational needs in recent years. The league operates a scholarship program that offers one full year of tuition, textbooks and compulsory fees for each season they play in the WHL. Since the program was introduced in 1993, over 3,000 such scholarships have been handed out at a total value of $9-million. Each team maintains an academic advisor, who monitors the academic progress of all players along with the league's Director of Education Services.
Canadian universities and colleges recruit extensively from the WHL, affording graduating players the opportunity to continue playing hockey as they attend post-secondary institutions. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) considers graduates of the WHL to be ineligible to participate in university hockey programs in the United States. Players hoping to receive scholarships to, and play for, American universities play Junior A hockey in one of the Canadian Junior Hockey League's member organizations so as to retain their NCAA eligibility.
The WHL Bantam Draft is an annual event which teams select players from bantam hockey league age groups, 14 or 15 years old. The order of selection depends on the final standings of the teams, the last place team selects first the 2nd to last will choose 2nd and so on.
Players aged 15–20 are eligible to play in the WHL, though 15-year olds are permitted to play only five games unless their midget team's season has ended. Also, each team is allowed to have only three 20-year olds on their rosters. Each team is permitted to carry only two non-North American players. Each of the CHL's three member leagues are granted exclusive territorial rights to players from within North America. The WHL holds rights to players from the four western provinces, the western United States and the Yukon and Northwest Territories.
Memorial Cup champions Edit
The Memorial Cup has been captured by a WHL team 18 times since the league's founding
- Most goals in a season: 108, Ray Ferraro, 1983–84
- Most assists in a season: 136, Rob Brown, 1986–87
- Most points in a season: 212, Rob Brown, 1986–87
- Most penalty minutes in a season: 511, Brent Gogol, 1977–78
- Most points in a season, rookie: 145, Petr Nedved, 1989–90
- Most points in a season, defenceman: 140, Cam Plante, 1983–84
- Most hat-tricks in a season: 15, Ray Ferraro, 1983–84
- Most wins in a season: 60, Victoria Cougars, 1980–81
- Most wins in an inaugural season: 35, Everett Silvertips, 2003–04
- Most points in a season: 125, Brandon Wheat Kings, 1978–79
- Most goals in a season: 496, Kamloops Blazers, 1986–87
- Fewest goals against in a season: 125, Kelowna Rockets, 2003–04
Trophies and awards Edit
- Ed Chynoweth Cup—playoff champions
- Scotty Munro Memorial Trophy—regular season champions
- Four Broncos Memorial Trophy—player of the year
- Daryl K. (Doc) Seaman Trophy—scholastic player of the year
- Bob Clarke Trophy—top scorer
- Brad Hornung Trophy—most sportsmanlike player
- Bill Hunter Memorial Trophy—top defencemen
- Jim Piggott Memorial Trophy—rookie of the year
- Del Wilson Trophy—top goaltender
- Dunc McCallum Memorial Trophy—coach of the year
- Lloyd Saunders Memorial Trophy—executive of the year
- Allen Paradice Memorial Trophy—top official
- St. Clair Group Trophy—marketing/public relations award
- Doug Wickenheiser Memorial Trophy—humanitarian of the year
- WHL Plus-Minus Award
- airBC Trophy—most valuable player in the playoffs
- WHL All-Star Teams
- WHL Regular Season Goal Scoring Leader
- WHL Regular Season Assist Leader
- WHL Regular Season Goals Against Average Leader
See also Edit
- (2008) in Flett, Corey and Watts, Jessie: 2008–09 WHL Guide. Western Hockey League.
- Western Hockey League seasons. hockeydb.org. Retrieved on 2009-02-11.
- Local Heroes: A History of the Western Hockey League by Richard Lapp and Silas White.
- ↑ "Buffaloes continue program", Calgary Herald, 1966-10-04, p. 14.
- ↑ "CMJHL may play without official sanction of CAHA", Calgary Herald, 1966-10-05, p. 55.
- ↑ Matheson, Jim. "Oil Kings get CAHA nod for move to Portland", Edmonton Journal, 1976-05-26, p. 67.
- ↑ Naylor, David and Leriche, Timothy. "Tragedy hits hockey club", Calgary Sun, 1986-12-31, p. 5.
- ↑ Four Broncos Memorial Trophy. Western Hockey League. Retrieved on 2009-02-11.
- ↑ Aykroyd, Lucas (12 2008). "School's in Session". Prospects Hockey.
- ↑ (2008) in Flett, Corey and Watts, Jessie: 2008–09 WHL Guide. Western Hockey League, 191.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 WHL Frequently Asked Questions. Western Hockey League. Retrieved on 2009-02-11.
- ↑ Lamb, Kirk. "Guide for College Bound Hockey Players", Alberta Junior Hockey League, p. 34.
- Official website of the Western Hockey League
- Official website of the Canadian Hockey League
- Maps to WHL arenas
|Current arenas in the Western Hockey League|
|Art Hauser Centre · Brandt Centre · Canalta Centre · Credit Union iPlex · ENMAX Centre · ENMAX Centrium · Mosaic Place · Rexall Place · Scotiabank Saddledome · SaskTel Place · Western Financial Place · Westman Place|
|CN Centre · Interior Savings Centre · Memorial Coliseum · Pacific Coliseum · Prospera Place · Moda Center · Save-On-Foods Memorial Centre · ShoWare Center · Spokane Veterans Memorial Arena · Toyota Center · Xfinity Arena at Everett|
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