Sloan started his National Hockey League career with the Toronto Maple Leafs in 1948. He would also play for the Chicago Black Hawks. He would retire after the 1961 season. He won three Stanley Cups in his career, two with Toronto in 1949 and 1951, and one with Chicago in 1961. In 1949 with Toronto, Sloan only played 29 regular-season games and did not play in the playoffs. His name was left off the Stanley Cup, but he was included on the 1949 Maple Leaf team winning picture.
Known as a tough forward who could give and take a check with the best of them, Tod Sloan began his junior career in the Ontario Hockey Association with the St. Michaels Majors in 1944 where he helped lead the team to the Memorial Cup in his first two seasons. The 1945-46 season saw him lead the league in goals, assists, and points.
The Toronto Maple Leafs called him up the next year, but Sloan played only one game for the Leafs in 1947-48, returning to Pittsburgh after. The next season, he appeared in 29 games in Toronto but spent most of it with the Hornets. The 1949-50 season was spent entirely in the AHL with the Cleveland Barons and saw him lead the playoffs in goals and points.
It was on his third try to crack the Leafs' lineup in 1950-51 that he succeeded. In his rookie year, Sloan played in his first All-Star Game and saw his first action in the Stanley Cup playoffs. He scored a huge goal for the Leafs in game five of the finals against the Montreal Canadiens. It was the third period, with the Leafs down by a goal, when Sloan scored the tying marker with 32 seconds left, setting up the overtime heroics of Bill Barilko and giving the Leafs the Cup, Sloan's first.
In 1957, Sloan and other players attempted to create a players association, only to be punished by the Leafs who traded him to the Chicago Blackhawks for cash in 1958. After three seasons with the Hawks, he won his second Stanley Cup in 1961 and then left the NHL.
- 1945-46 Eddie Powers Memorial Trophy (Ontario Hockey Association Junior A Outstanding Player)
- 1945-46 Red Tilson Trophy (Ontario Hockey Association Junior A Leading Scorer)