The team first played in the 1926–27 season. They played one further season in 1927–28, before being sold to become the Newark Bulldogs. The Bulldogs only lasted one season.
A new Castors team was formed in the new Eastern Canada Hockey Association. When the league folded this team entered the Canadian-American League. The revived team played a further three seasons before disbanding for good in 1935. The owner, Lucien Garneau, transferred his CAHL franchise to Springfield, Massachusetts and used it to form the second Springfield Indians.
The Quebec Castors were also a junior team.
In each of these seasons the Castors advanced to the Quebec Junior Playoffs and lost the provincial final.