Groeneveld began in 1994 with the Augustana University. The following season, he joined the Central Hockey League, playing for the Wichita Thunder and the Fort Worth Fire. His stay in the CHL only lasted one season; he crossed the Atlantic the following season to join the french Viry-Châtillon Essonne Jets. In 1998, he signs with the Rouen Dragons. It would prove a successful move for the Dutch-Canadian, who won the Magnus Cup with Rouen, as well as the Jean Ferrand trophy, awarded to the Ligue Magnus' best goaltender.
In 2001, Groeneveld moved to Amsterdam to wear the Eredivisie's Amsterdam Tigers colours. 2002-03 was another excellent season for Groeneveld, who was named best goaltender of the Netherlands. An injury made him miss the 2003-04 season; when he could resume play, he did so with the Amsterdam Bulldogs. He only played two games for the Bulldogs before returning to North America to play in the minor leagues. The next season, he joined SV Renon of the Serie A.
Phil Groeneveld wears the colours of the Dutch National Team in international competitions.