Ice hockey is a sport that is contested at the Winter Olympic Games. A men's ice hockey tournament has been held every Winter Olympics (starting in 1924); an ice hockey tournament was also held at the 1920 Summer Olympics. From 1920 to 1968, the Olympics also acted as the Ice Hockey World Championships, and the two events occurred concurrently. From 1920 until 1984, only amateur athletes were allowed to compete in the tournament, and players from the National Hockey League (NHL) were not allowed to compete. In 1970, after a disagreement over the definition of amateur players, Canada withdrew from the tournament and did not send a team to the 1972 or 1976 Winter Olympics. In 1987, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) decided to allow professional athletes to compete in the Olympics, and starting in 1998, the NHL allowed its players to participate. Women's ice hockey was added in 1992 and the first tournament was held at the 1998 Winter Olympics. Both events have been held at every Olympic Games since.
Three male athletes have won four medals: Vladislav Tretiak (three gold, one silver), Igor Kravchuk (two gold, one silver, one bronze) and Jiří Holík (two silver, two bronze). Six have won three gold medals: Tretiak, Anatoli Firsov, Victor Kuzkin, Andrei Khomutov, Alexander Ragulin and Vitaly Davydov. In women's hockey, six have won four medals. Four Canadians have won three gold and one silver—Jennifer Botterill, Jayna Hefford, Becky Kellar and Hayley Wickenheiser—and two Americans have won a gold, two silver and a bronze—Angela Ruggiero and Jenny Potter.
From 1920 to 1952, teams from Canada dominated the men's tournament, winning six gold and one silver medal. The Soviet Union began competing at the Olympics in 1956 and won nine straight Olympic medals, including seven gold. The Soviet Union broke up in 1991, and in 1992, a Unified Team composed mainly of former Soviet players won gold. Teams from Canada have won the most medals, with sixteen, including nine gold. As of the 2010 Winter Olympics, 78 medals (26 of each color) have been awarded to teams from 13 countries.
Athlete medal leadersEdit
|Vladislav Tretiak||Soviet Union (URS)||1972–1984||3||1||0||4|
|Jennifer Botterill||Canada (CAN)||1998–2010||3||1||0||4|
|Jayna Hefford||Canada (CAN)||1998–2010||3||1||0||4|
|Becky Kellar||Canada (CAN)||1998–2010||3||1||0||4|
|Hayley Wickenheiser||Canada (CAN)||1998–2010||3||1||0||4|
|Igor Kravchuk|| Soviet Union (URS)|
Unified Team (EUN)
|Angela Ruggiero||United States (USA)||1998–2010||1||2||1||4|
|Jenny Potter||United States (USA)||1998–2010||1||2||1||4|
|Jiří Holík||Czechoslovakia (TCH)||1964–1976||0||2||2||4|
|Saku Koivu||Finland (FIN)||1994–2010||0||1||3||4|
|Jere Lehtinen||Finland (FIN)||1994–2010||0||1||3||4|
|Ville Peltonen||Finland (FIN)||1994–2010||0||1||3||4|
|Anatoli Firsov||Soviet Union (URS)||1964–1972||3||0||0||3|
|Victor Kuzkin||Soviet Union (URS)||1964–1972||3||0||0||3|
|Alexander Ragulin||Soviet Union (URS)||1964–1972||3||0||0||3|
|Vitaly Davydov||Soviet Union (URS)||1964–1972||3||0||0||3|
|Andrei Khomutov|| Soviet Union (URS)|
Unified Team (EUN)
|Caroline Ouellette||Canada (CAN)||2002–2010||3||0||0||3|
|Cherie Piper||Canada (CAN)||2002–2010||3||0||0||3|
|Kim St-Pierre||Canada (CAN)||2002–2010||3||0||0||3|
|Colleen Sostorics||Canada (CAN)||2002–2010||3||0||0||3|
^ Note 1. The members of the 1920 Czechoslovakia team vary depending on the source. Karel Hartmann, Vilém Loos, Jan Palouš, Jan Peka, Karel Pešek, Josef Šroubek and Otakar Vindyš are all consistently included on team lists. However, there is a discrepancy over Karel Wälzer, Josef Loos, Karel Kotrba and Adolf Dušek. The following are the lineups based on the listings of the Czech Olympic Committee (COC), International Olympic Committee (IOC) and International Society of Olympic Historians (ISOH). This table does not list the seven that are included in every source.
- Results database. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved on 2009-02-17.
- Ice Hockey: Ice Hockey Men. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2009-02-17.
- Ice Hockey: Ice Hockey Women. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2009-02-17.
- Olympic Review and Revue Olympique. LA84 Foundation. Retrieved on 2009-02-17.
- Podnieks, Andrew (1997). Canada's Olympic Hockey Teams: The Complete History, 1920–1998. Toronto: Doubleday Canada. ISBN 0-385-25688-4.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Ice hockey. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved on 2009-02-17.
- ↑ "International hockey timeline", International Ice Hockey Federation. Retrieved on 2009-02-17.
- ↑ "Summit Series '72 Summary", Hockey Hall of Fame. Retrieved on 2009-02-17.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Men's Hockey History. CBC Sports. Retrieved on 2009-02-17.
- ↑ Lapointe, Joe (1997-09-16). The N.H.L.'s Olympic Gamble; Stars' Participation in Nagano Could Raise Sport's Profile. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2009-02-17.
- ↑ An Agreement By Nagano Games. The New York Times (1992-11-29). Retrieved on 2009-02-17.
- ↑ Women's Hockey History. CBC Sports. Retrieved on 2009-02-17.
- ↑ International Olympic Committee (2008-08-01). Factsheet: Records and medals at the Olympic Winter Games (PDF). Press release. Retrieved on 2009-02-17.
- ↑ Antverpy 1920 (cz). Czech Olympic Committee. Retrieved on 2009-02-24.
- ↑ Hansen, Kenth (May 1996). "The Birth of Swedish Ice Hockey - Antwerp 1920" (PDF). Citius, Altius, Fortius 4 (2): 5–27. International Society of Olympic Historians.
- Ice Hockey: Men's Ice Hockey at sports-reference.com
- Ice Hockey: Women's Ice Hockey at sports-reference.com
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