He played for the junior Toronto Marlboros from 1950 to 1953. He turned pro in 1953-54 with the Pittsburgh Hornets and the Springfield Indians of the American Hockey League. Henderson was traded to the Boston Bruins by the Toronto Maple Leafs (who owned his rights) in 1954 for Ray Gariepy.
Henderson played 45 games for the Bruins in 1954-55 with a Goals against average of 2.49. The next year he only played one more game for the Bruins. In 1955-56 he joined the senior Whitby Dunlops and won the Allan Cup in 1957. He was a spare goalie when the Dunlops won the 1958 World Hockey Championship representing Canada. In 1959 he won another Allan Cup.
After leaving the Dunlops in 1960 Henderson played another 10 seasons in the minor pros and retired in 1970.