He was chosen 130th overall by the Pittsburgh Penguins in the 1993 NHL Entry Draft. Rather than turn pro out of high school, Kelleher chose to play four years for the Boston University Terriers (1994 to 1998) and also represented the United States in the 1995 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships.
Kelleher turned pro with the Syracuse Crunch in 1998-99 and then spent two seasons with the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins. In 2001 he signed as a free agent with the Boston Bruins. Aside from his one game with the Bruins, Kelleher played two seasons for the Providence Bruins.
He retired in 2003.