The 2006 Kelly Cup Playoffs of the ECHL began on April 9, 2006. 19 teams qualified for the playoffs (11 from the American Conference and 8 from the National Conference). In the American Conference, the top five teams from the North Division and the top six teams from the South Division qualified for the playoffs. In the National Conference, the top four teams from each division qualified for the playoffs.
The top four teams from each of the Pacific and West Divisions qualified for the 2006 Kelly Cup playoffs.
Both divisions had individual playoffs before meeting in the conference finals. The top seed from each division met the fourth seed from their respective division and the second seed met the third in the Division Semifinals. The two winners advanced to the Division Finals. The winner of each Division Final advanced to the National Conference Finals (Pacific Division playoff champion vs. West Division playoff champion).
The teams were seeded by points and all games were best of seven games.
Because of the unbalance of the ECHL (14 teams in the American Conference compared to 11 teams in the National), the ECHL had have eleven teams in the playoffs from the American Conference.
As with the National Conference, both divisions had individual playoffs before meeting in the conference finals.
In the North Division, the top three teams received a bye and advanced to the division semifinals. A best-of-three "play-in" round was held between the fourth and fifth place teams. The winner gained the fourth seed and headed to the division semifinals where they would play the top seeded team and the second seed played the third in best-of-five series. The winners of the two series in the division semifinals advanced to the division finals which were also a best-of-five series.
In the South Division, the top two teams received a bye and advanced to the division semifinals. Two best-of-three "play-in" series were played between the third seed and the sixth seed and the fourth seed and the fifth seed. The winners of each series were reseeded by regular season point total and either played the first seed or the second seed in a best-of-five series in the division semifinals. The two winners advanced to the best-of-five division finals.
The winners of the two division finals play in a best-of-seven conference final.