The 2001 Calder Cup Playoffs of the American Hockey League began on April 10, 2001. The sixteen teams that qualified, eight from each conference, played best-of-5 series for division semifinals and best-of-7 series for division finals and conference finals. The conference champions played a best-of-7 series for the Calder Cup. The Calder Cup Final ended on May 28, 2001 with the Saint John Flames defeating the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins four games to two to win the first Calder Cup in team history.
After the 2000–01 AHL regular season, 16 teams qualified for the playoffs. The top four teams from each division qualified for the playoffs. However, due to the uneven number of teams in each division, it was possible for teams to crossover to another division for the playoffs. The fifth-placed team in the New England Division could qualify for the forth playoff spot in the Canadian Division if they earned more points than the fourth-placed team in the Canadian Division. The fifth-placed team in the Mid-Atlantic Division could qualify for the forth playoff spot in the South Division if they earned more points than the fourth-placed team in the South Division. The Worcester IceCats were the Eastern Conference regular season champions as well as the Macgregor Kilpatrick Trophy winners with the best overall regular season record. The Rochester Americans were the Western Conference regular season champions.
In each round the team that earned more points during the regular season receives home ice advantage, meaning they receive the "extra" game on home-ice if the series reaches the maximum number of games. There is no set series format due to arena scheduling conflicts and travel considerations.