The 1972 Calder Cup Playoffs of the American Hockey League began on April 4, 1972. The eight teams that qualified played best-of-7 series for Division Semifinals and Finals. The division champions played a best-of-7 series for the Calder Cup. The Calder Cup Final ended on May 15, 1972 with the Nova Scotia Voyageurs, in their inaugural season in Nova Scotia, defeating the Baltimore Clippers four games to two to win the Calder Cup for the first time in team history. The Voyageurs also became the first Canadian team to win the Calder Cup.
Baltimore and Cincinnati set an AHL playoff record for most goals scored by both teams in one game with 18, when Baltimore beat Cincinnati 10-8 in game 5 of the Southern division final. Baltimore's Howie Menard set an AHL record for most points in one playoff game with 7 against Cleveland in game 5 of their Southern division semifinal. Two players have tied this record since then. Nova Scotia's Michel Plasse set an AHL record for lowest goals against average in one playoff, posting a 1.25 GAA.
In each round, the higher seed receives home ice advantage, meaning they receive the "extra" game on home-ice if the series reaches the maximum number of games. There is no set series format due to arena scheduling conflicts and travel considerations.